The economies of Canada and the United States are tightly interwoven. The United States is Canada’s largest trading partner, and trade with the United States comprises 85% of Canada’s two-way trade with other countries. In the last decade, Canada has also become the largest supplier of energy to the United States, surpassing the Middle East. Exports include uranium and hydroelectric power, as well as oil and natural gas. Much of this supplied energy is highly dependent upon water in one form or another and will have a lasting effect on Canada’s water legacy.

The countries have created a number of mechanisms for dealing with cross-boundary environmental matters including air, water, and migratory wildlife. In September 2004, the United States announced that it would proceed with the Devils Lake diversion, sending Missouri Basin water from North Dakota into the Red River system in Manitoba. The diversion is opposed by many Canadians as a threat to Canadian aquatic ecosystems. Meanwhile, British Columbia’s decision to allow drilling in the Flathead River Basin is being strongly contested by American and Canadian interest groups on both sides of the border. Conflicts over water along the shared boundary will likely increase in the years ahead.


  On The Table: Water, Energy and North American Integration
Andrew Nikiforuk
[October 16, 2007]

  Water, Energy and North American Integration
Conference Hosted By the Program on Water Issues at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto
[September 10, 2007]

  On The Table: Water, Energy and North American Integration
Andrew Nikiforuk
[September 10, 2007]

  Water Division, Export and Canada-US Relations: A Brief History
Frank Quinn
[September 10, 2007]

  Water in North America: Rising Tensions
Notes for Remarks by Adèle M. Hurley to the Royal Society of Canada Symposium on Water in Canada and the World: Rising Tensions in the 21st Century: Issues and Solutions

Adèle M. Hurley
[November 17, 2006]

  Comments on the International St. Mary-Milk Rivers Administrative Measures Task Force Report
Ralph I. Pentland
[June 3, 2006]

  An Impending Water Crisis in Canada’s Western Prairie Provinces
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (PNAS)
David Schindler,
William Donahue

[April 10, 2006]

  Water in the West: Under Pressure
Fourth Interim Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources
The Honourable Tommy Banks,
The Honourable Ethel Cochrane

[November 2005]

  Address to the Prairie Water Policy Symposium
Lloyd Axworthy
[September 2005]

  Rising Tensions: Canada/U.S. Cross-Border Water Issues in the 21st Century
D.W. Schindler and Adèle M. Hurley
[November 2004]